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Tuesday, 25 April 2017



Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a decrease in bone density and strength, that's to say, bones become more fragile and breakable, with the presence of abnormal pores, taking the shape of sponge. The disorder weakens bones and increases their susceptibility to fractures such as the fractures of spine and thighbone.

Your bone tissues are in a constant state of renewal from birth until adolescence and reach their peak bone density by early twenties, and with aging the bone tissues degrade and the body begins to replace them, the process is known as (renewal).
In case of osteoporosis the bone tissues cannot be compensated and become less dense and porous, brittle and breakable.

Symptoms and signs:
The symptoms do not usually show up at the early stages of osteoporosis, but some of them occur with the progress of the disease, including:
  • Back pain caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra. 
  • Loss of height.
  • Stooped posture.
  • Easily incidence of bone fractures.

Risk factors:
The following risk factors are uncontrollable:
  • Aging.
  • Gender: Women are much more likely to develop osteoporosis.
  • Family history of osteoporosis.
  • Menopause/Hysterectomy
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Primary and secondary hypogonadism.
  • Diabetes.
The controllable factors:
  • Smoking.
  • Low BMI (Body Mass Index).
  • Malnutrition.
  • Vitamin D deficiency.
  • Vitamin C deficiency.
  • Protein deficiency.
  • Eating disorders.
  • Lack of physical activities.
  • Low calcium in diet.
  • Frequent falls.
  • Diagnosis is done by evaluating risk factors and medical history of patient.
  • Bone density device Central DXA.
Bone fractures, particularly in the spine, pelvic bones and thighs are the most serious complication of osteoporosis due to the fact that they are the main bones that carry the bulk of the body weight. In some cases, spinal fractures can occur even if you haven't fallen or got a blow as a result of weakened back bones (vertebrae).

  • Alendronate.
  • Risedronate.
  • Ibandronate.
  • Zoledronic acid.

Drugs supporting the treatment of osteoporosis:
The doctor may prescribe calcium and vitamin D as supportive drugs for treating osteoporosis.
  • Improving the life style (healthy diet and exercising).
  • Quitting smoking.
  • Exposing to sunrays to stimulate the production of vitamin D. 
  • Nutrition: Eating healthy foods such as the ones rich in calcium and vitamin D.


Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer
Lung Cancer:
Lung cancer is the term used to describe the growth of abnormal cells lining the trachea inside the lung. These cells divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. They are cancerous cells that combine to form a cluster or tumor in the lung.

If the cancerous cells originate in the lungs, the tumor is called a primary lung cancer.
However, if some lung cancer cells are able to move through the blood vessels, they get attached to another organ of the body and continue growing. This growth and movement of the new cancerous cells is called malignant tumor or a secondary lung cancer.
  • Smoking is a major factor in the development of lung cancer.
  • Secondhand smoking.
  • Genetic factor (family history).
  • Repeated exposure to chemical fumes and gasses such as radioactive radon gas. 
  • Acute and chronic cough accompanied by blood.
  • Change in the color, intensity and volume of coughing up sputum.
  • Wheezing.
  • Changes in the voice or being hoarse.
  • Great weight loss without known reason.
  • General feeling of fatigue and weakness.
  • Feeling of pain in chest, shoulder, arms or back.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Recurrent pneumonia.
Lung cancer is diagnosed by:
  • Medical history.
  • Clinical examination.
  • X-ray of the lung.
  • CT scan
  • PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan.
  • Biopsy of lung cells.

Risk Factors
  • Smoking.
  • Secondhand smoking.
  • Environmental pollution.
  • Repeated exposure to radon gas.
  • Repeated exposure to cancerous minerals and chemical materials such as: asbestos, uranium, diesel, arsenic, silica, nickel compounds, coal products, mustard gas, chrome ... etc.
  • Previous radiation therapy of the lungs.
  • Family history. 
The lung cancer may cause health complications such as:
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Coughing up blood.
  • Feeling pain.
  • Accumulation of fluid in the lung.
  • Spread of the cancer to other parts of the body.

Initially, treatment of lung cancer depends on the following:
  • Size of tumor.
  • Type of tumor.
  • Stage of tumor.
  • Health condition of patient.

Accordingly, treatment plan will be developed; as yet there are three types of treatment to control the lung cancer:
  • Surgery.
  • Radiation therapy.
  • Chemotherapy.    
  • Quitting smoking.
  • Avoiding secondhand smoke.
  • Physical activities on a regular basis.
  • Maintaining a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables.
  • Maintaining a normal weight.
  • Consulting your doctor and periodic follow-up.
  • Avoiding exposure to cancerous chemical materials.

Monday, 24 April 2017



Diabetes is a chronic disease of high blood glucose (sugar) level than the normal level, and is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or reduced tissues sensitivity, or both.

Insulin: A hormone produced by the pancreas to help control and maintain blood glucose. 

Types of the disease:

Type 1 diabetes: This type occurs when insulin producing cells are completely disrupted and become unable to produce the hormone. Usually, this type of diabetes affects young people.

Type 2 diabetes: When the body can produce insulin either in insufficient amounts or normal amounts but ineffective.
Gestational diabetes: High blood glucose as a result of the hormones produced by the placenta during pregnancy and often disappears after delivery. 
Secondary diabetes: Is diabetes that results as a consequence of another medication and hormones or pancreatic surgery and other reasons. 

  • Frequent urination.
  • Feeling very thirsty / mouth dryness.
  • Feeling very hungry.
  • Sudden loss of weight.
  • Fatigue.
  • Itching and skin infection.
  • A tingling sensation or numbness in the limbs.
  • Blurred vision.Fee
  • ling hot in the feet.S
  • low-healing wounds.

  • Random blood sugar test.
  • Fasting blood sugar test.
  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test (acumulative diabetes). Diagnosis is done in two different dates.  


High Blood Sugar Averages Prediabetes Averages Normal Sugar Averages Types of Blood Test
From 126 mg/dl or more 100-125 mg/dl Less than 100 mg/dl Fasting Blood Test
From 200 mg/dl or more 140-199 mg/dl Less than140 mg/dl 2 Hours After Eating
605% or more 5.7-6.4% Less than 5.7% Accumulative Sugar Test

Causes and Risk Factors:
  • Genetic Factors: Your risk increases if a parent or sibling has type 1 diabetes.
  • Obese:  The more fatty tissue you have, the more resistant your cells become to insulin.
  • Exposure to viral diseases.
  • High blood pressure.
  • High fat in the blood.
  • Laziness and lack of physical activity.

Chronic Complications:
  • Cardiovascular Diseases: Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis).
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy): Excess sugar in the blood can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in your legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward.
  • Kidney problems (nephropathy): High blood glucose leads to kidney failure or kidney diseases.
  • Retinopathy: High blood sugar damages tiny vessels that bring nutrients to the retina, blocking the passage of light to the retina.
  • Feet problems: Nerve damage in the limbs, particularly the feet, makes the patient unable to feel the pain of an injury which can lead to ulcers in the foot.
  • Skin conditions:  Diabetes may leave you more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.
  • Gingivitis.
  • Osteoporosis.

Treatment: There is currently no cure for diabetes; however, you can keep level of blood sugar within normal range. Treatment of diabetes differs from patient to patient, the doctor decides the most appropriate type of treatment for each patient, depending on the following:

Type of diabetes.
  • Health conditions of the patient. Effective treatment of diabetes depends on the patient himself, when he is committed to adjusting his sugar level, he will enjoy a healthy life, through the followings:
  • Visiting diabetes clinic regularly.
  • Checking your blood sugar regularly at home.
  • Exercising regularly.
  • Taking care of your feet and checking them daily.

Prediabetes, type2 diabetes and gestational diabetes can be prevented through the following:
• Eating healthy foods by choosing those lower in fat and calories and higher in fiber. Focusing on fruits, vegetables and whole grains. 
• Regular physical activity.
• Avoiding overweight. 
Examinations necessary for diabetics:
  • Checking blood pressure at each visit.
  • Checking weight at each visit.
  • Checking feet every 6 months.
  • Checking accumulative sugar every 6-12 months.
  • Checking cholesterol and triglycerides every 12 months.
  • Checking eyes every 12 months.